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5 tips to draw trees effectively

Hey guys today i’m going to give you five
tips to help you draw trees. Tip number one is the internal structure which
is the trunk and the branches. You don’t want to make these too straight
or repetitive you really want to capture the randomness of nature, in order to do this
you want o be free with your branches, i recommend not holding the pencil by the tip, I usually
hold it mid ways your goal is to control the pencil less in order to create the natural
branches. Right here i let go of the pencil a little
bit and make the tree truck curvyer. However i still have control over the pencil
and know what i’m going to do next. I’m also paying attention of where i place
the branches, i don’t want to leave huge gaps in-between the branches because that
would make the tree look weird and loose balance.

I also want to spread out the branches evenly
because to many branches on one side would make the tree loose balance as well. Moving on with tip number two. It deals with the overlap of form which helps
your tree look three dimensional. To do this were going to use the T method
which is the point where two forms overlap, you want to emphasize the T, and this shows
what is closer and what is farther away. for example this is our first T. and as you
can see it looks like a T and it shows that the branch is above the trunk or that its
closer to us. You can also use this method to show that
a branch behind the trunk. Emphasizing these points will help the tree
loose its flatness and its important to do these with all the branches. Good i think the tree is coming out pretty
well.

You can even add extra branches as i am here,
i’m just going to erase that little part. Okay to better explain i’m going to draw
two flat shapes that resemble pears, but i’m going to show you how to make them three dimensional. By emphasizing the T’s i’m going to make
the back of this pear closer to us then the front of the pear. as you can see the flat
shape of the pear has three dimensions now. i’m going to do the same thing with this
pear i’m going to make the front of the pear look closer to us. Good now i’m just going to add some of the
shading and it makes it look better.

I hope you understand the method that this
is the closer side and that is the farther side and you can do this by emphasizing the
overlap of form. Now tip number three deals with light source
and value. after drawing this tree i will show you where
the light source is, which is the top right. Since my light source is at the top right
i’m going to start shading the bottom and the left side of the tree to show shadows.

I will leave the right and top part of the
tree light to show that, thats where’s the sun is hitting it. As you can see one of my branches is casting
a shadow across the trunk, this makes the tree become a little bit more three dimensional. When it comes to shadows and value there is
a lot of detail, i also don’t want to leave sections of the tree completely white or completely
dark I want to leave it at a middle tone and thats what i’m doing here.

Now i will show how the shadows are cast on
a tree with leaves. First of all the leaves blur out some of the
branches and overlap them. the light source is right above so i’m doing
the shadows on the bottom of the leaves. Also the branches are almost always going
to look darker. I outline the leaves to give it more style
and I do the cast shadow in the bottom of the tree and I add a bush just to give it
an environment. For tip number four were gonna focus on texture
and this is mostly up to your skill level. I do a lot of lines on my tree to show that
it sort of has a natural form and you can practice different textures its not only lines. And as you can see i add a hole on the tree
and its part of texture this one you would have to practice a lot. Tip number five and finally go out to nature
and try to draw the trees outside. Try to get a small sketch book like this one,
I took this one when i went on a trip to Europe and as you can see i draw random trees I drew
close up of trees.

Drawing trees from the natural environment
will help you a lot, a lot! I tried different textures as you can see
in this one, and also weird ones. I also drew trees with thin branches and really
any kind of tree that came close up of the branches. This sketch book is filled with more than
just trees as you can see, and finally this last tree i actually drew this one out of
my imagination after you draw a lot of trees you actually could draw them out of your imagination. Finally this tree i will draw it pointing
out he five tips so as you can see i’m trying to make naturally curvy branches that resemble
nature. This tree is coming out from my imagination
and i want to not leave any gaps, i want to keep it completely balanced. I will spread out the smaller thinner branches
and i will add this large branch coming out of the tree trunk to show form and space.

Now i will actually start doing the emphasis
on form and space which are the T’s i talked about earlier in tip number two. and as you
can see i have them emphasized now. Now i’m going to do the shadows. I will do my light source on the top right
and as you can see i will do all my shadows on the left side and i will do some cast shadows
on the branches that are sticking out now. Also i never really stopped drawing branches
i keep doing thinner ones, this really only helps me emphasize different parts of the
tree and keep the tree balance as you can see. Now i’m going to continue with texture and
i’m going to user he line method again i’m going to do a bunch of lines to give it texture
so it can look more natural and give it a rough surface. Finally the shadow, and i believe this is
one of my longest videos so hank you for sticking till the end. I really hope you learned from these tips
and if you like this video please give it a like! subscribe to my channel for more videos!

As found on YouTube

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Sammy Carlson Narrowly Misses Avalanche, Jumps Into Trees Instead–Wild Child Episode 1

this year we posted up in revenue for a couple months shredding with Tim Humphries Ben Moxon John sprigs just a good crew of guys we're going out in the mountain every day we just get up super early rally out to the trailhead and just spend the whole day in the mountains it's boring out there we are we're exploring a lot of different pillow zones and playing the trees a lot having some fun this year in particular it was more challenging and past seasons it's with variable snowpack and we were lucky one day we had a couple close calls like some pretty big pockets ripping out but nothing that we couldn't manage and then the next day we went back out and the snowpack became even more prone to avalanches you know as midway through a build and the whole bowl ripped out good to see you boys we all had to take a step back and just realize that it was not the right time to be up in the mountains there's plenty of warning signs telling us we need to take a break so we just toned her down for a few days and started thinking a little bit differently we are taking this situation that we're in and we're turning it into the best thing possible so we started hanging out in the trees and started to get a tree Jeb's on definitely have to pay attention to go check the charts you know every day when you're going out and make sure you're going out with a good crew of buddies that are also have the proper knowledge to assess the snow passion ultimately going out there the decisions yours no one's gonna stop you from dropping in but you gotta just make sure if you're not feeling it you just walk away

As found on YouTube

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Artificial Trees That Absorb CO2 – Hot Planet Preview – BBC One

trees absorb carbon dioxide but they release it during the night and when they decompose so professor Klaus Lackner an engineer Alan Wright have been designing a tree which could be more efficient than the real thing it was here at biosphere 2 in Arizona that the idea was first conceived biosphere 2 was the largest completely airtight artificial ecosystem ever built the perfect place to study how changes in carbon dioxide would affect the planet after working on several prototypes Klaus and Alan now think they might have finally cracked it this was an early design more like a cabinet than a tree inside a plastic that absorbs co2 these plastics are in exchange resins which are commonly used in water preparation if you disseminate water or make the ionized water this is the kind of stuff you would use you can buy it commercially in large quantities at first I used chemicals to wash the co2 out of the plastic so it could be reused but this needed too much energy to be viable then they made a discovery that was quite simple it happened after they set up a basic experiment using nothing more than an airtight Bell Jar hooked up to a carbon dioxide monitor an experiment they repeated for me here on top you see the plastic material which absorbs the co2 it has been wrapped in thin strips around the frame the level of co2 in the bell jar starts at 386 todays atmospheric levels as expected the plastic immediately absorbs it so the levels of co2 in here are really low around about 140 okay but what they do next they feel is the real breakthrough and so simple they don't the plastic in water and we'll just put it back in there those are the game now the air inside cannot escape back in the bell jar the wet plastic immediately starts to release the absorb co2 okay and the levels are already going on yes so we're going to see it's beginning to trend up and it will pick up over time as the co2 is given off by that material so just by making it wet it's now releasing the co2 that was previously trapped yes I mean it's wet it doesn't want to see you too so it pushes it off it's as simple as that it's as simple as that it's amazing it is and then you can dry it out again when it dries out again it will grab more co2 we'll do this over and over and over and over and can literally do this hundreds and hundreds of times having ensured that rainfall will not release the co2 Allanon class and now building a full-scale artificial tree when finished it will have a central drum with panels of the special plastic and a humidity control system by altering the moisture levels it will absorb and then release the co2 for storage this process requires no chemicals only a very small amount of energy and a water supply the vision of the future for these kind of artificial trees is that they can capture the carbon dioxide nobody else can catch that's their advantage that is their strength they estimate that a single tree will absorb about a ton of co2 a day about 75 cars worth 60 million trees could potentially absorb all the co2 we currently emit and that's not all this is one of the few options available to actually go back and reduce the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere from the level we are already at or will be in 50 years from now back down to where it is safe all this absorbed carbon dioxide would of course need to be put somewhere but that's where other new technologies come in like the geological storage of co2 that's being tested in Utah and because co2 levels are the same around the planet a great forest of artificial trees could be placed right on top of storage sites so the co2 wouldn't have to be transported you

As found on YouTube

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Grafting Lemon Trees – Grafting Fruit Trees by T-budding

This video shows how to graft
a lemon tree using T-budding. The T-bud is commonly used
for grafting lemon trees. It is easy and it gives a high success rate. It works well for grafting new fruit trees. This is the rootstock that I will be grafting to,
a variety called carrizo. The fruit that I will be grafting is
a delicious lemon hybrid called lemonade. It is not as sour as a traditional lemon. It can be peeled and eaten like an orange
and has a similar balance between sweet and sour. In order to achieve a successful graft
and also to avoid spreading disease, I sterilize my grafting tools with
a 1.5% concentration of chlorine bleach. First I remove the leaves and thorns
from the rootstock. A budding height of
at least 8 to 12 inches or 20 to 30 centimeters above the soil will make for a healthy tree. I cut an upside-down T into the rootstock at this height. An upright T will also work.

The advantage of an upside-down T
is that it can help to keep water out. This may produce better results
in a rainy area. Next I peel the bark back
with the bark lifter on my grafting knife to prepare the rootstock to receive the bud. T-budding must be performed
during a time of year when the tree is actively growing,
allowing the bark to be peeled back. I cut the bud by slicing underneath it. The back of the bud has wood attached. The wood does not need to be removed. It is important to avoid touching
the cut surfaces of the bud. It is often possible to hold the bud
by the petiole where the leaf was attached. Since the petiole has fallen off,
I pick the bud up with my knife. Next I insert the bud under the bark. I cut off the bottom of
the bud piece that was sticking out. It is important to graft the bud right-side-up. The bud should be on top. The scar where the leaf was attached is on the bottom. This is a thorn. Next I wrap the bud tightly
with vinyl tape, starting below the bud and wrapping up.

My step-by-step article at
fruitmentor.com/GraftingLemonTrees has more information on wrapping material. In order to improve my chances of success,
I will graft a second bud to the rootstock. This way I will succeed
even if one of the bud grafts fails. Citrus cuttings have the potential
to spread tree-killing diseases. It is often not apparent when a tree
is infected with a fatal disease. This makes the source of citrus budwood
for grafting very important. In California where I live we now have
both exotic diseases that kill citrus trees and also the insects
that spread the diseases.

The situation is so severe that it is now
against the law in California to graft with backyard citrus cuttings. Hobbyists in California now instead
order their budwood at a nominal cost from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program
or CCPP, a program that exists to provide disease-free budwood
for the grafting of citrus trees. I have made a video that shows how to set
up an account and order citrus budwood. You can click here or visit the link below. The CCPP will ship budwood anywhere in the
world where the local laws allow it. Many citrus growing regions
where it is not allowed have their own disease-free
citrus budwood programs. Information on other programs
is included in the ordering video.

After the grafts are finished,
I move the tree to a shady area for a three week healing period. After the healing period, I unwrap the grafts. Both buds are still green,
an indication of success. I would normally perform the next step
with the tree in the container, but my family likes lemonade fruit so much
that I decided to plant the tree in the ground first. Citrus trees do much better in the ground
than in containers, so this will give the tree a better start. I create a watering basin
whenever I plant a citrus tree. Lemonade is my daughter’s favorite citrus fruit
and she is excited to help. I let the tree settle in for a few days
before the next step, which is forcing the grafted bud to grow.

A phenomenon called apical dominance
governs the growth of citrus buds. Natural hormones from the buds
at the end of the branches prevent buds lower down from growing. In order for a grafted bud to grow, the
effect of these hormones must be overcome. I break the apical dominance
by cutting halfway through the rootstock and pushing it over so that
the terminal buds are lower than the newly grafted buds. The timelapse shows about three weeks of growth. After a bit more growth,
I remove the top of the rootstock and stake the tree. Here you see the lemonade tree the following spring. It is important to remove any sprouts from the rootstock. If left to grow,
it would outcompete the grafted variety and produce undesirable fruit. In order to encourage branching,
I again break apical dominance by cutting off the terminal buds.

Here you see the new branches
on my lemonade tree. I hope that you have enjoyed this video
and have found it helpful. If you have any questions,
please ask below in the comments. I will be happy to answer. I have made this video to save citrus trees
all over the world from deadly diseases. You can help by sharing this video,
by giving it a “thumbs up”, and by subscribing
to this YouTube channel. Another thing that you can do to save
citrus trees is to inspect them monthly for citrus psyllids, the insects that
spread the deadly huanglongbing disease. Even a single psyllid is a cause
for immediate action.

Learn more here. You can download my free eBook
with more citrus grafting tips at fruitmentor.com/GraftingTips.

As found on YouTube

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Growing Fig Trees fast to produce Figs on Young Trees-Manure and Woodchips

morning all I'm gonna do a really short video I hope on fig trees real quick this big tree which I'm trying to see in the Sun really hard to see my camera in the Sun it's really sunny this thing's about some feet tall and this one was planted last year these came out of my compost we eat a lot of things because we grow a lot of fig trees and they were so tiny they grew last year so my husband stuck this in his garden so there's one and now we're gonna walk through his garden I'm not doing a full garden tour today of his garden by will and there's the other one let's see if I can get over to it and this one yeah about five and a half feet tall and those are his and he's got him growing in and sweet we've hit a patch and I'm not sure what else is this term record ginger or what are these this is turmeric okay well it doesn't matter we're not doing a video thing on you having a migraine today so we'll do that another day okay so this is he's got he stuck the other one I had a few of them I didn't have the heart to throw them away so he's stuck it in there so these are the ones growing in his garden down here the two that we pulled out of the compost now I'm gonna go back and we're gonna go up because my garden is up on top of the hill his is down in the valley I'm gonna go to my garden I'm gonna show you that the trees that I planted same time same age they're just now just barely a little over a year old and I'm gonna show you that one okay now we're back in my garden well this is behind my garden this is where that wall is and these are avocados these are the fig trees I planted there are four of them and they were up in my compost this one's over ten feet tall and it's got bigs the figs on this one are very good have already been eating them they're a light-colored fig and on the inside they're pink and they're very sweet very very good let's see if I can show you where the trunk is on here see the trunk size okay now this has got a bigger trunk this is a very special thing I can't really get a good shot of it and the angle I'm at and this is a really good thing again keep up my nice specs are only a year old these trees they're maybe a year now in a few a couple months okay oh this one's probably about twelve feet tall No fifteen feet tall this is phenomenal I don't know what kind of thing it is remember they're probably hybrid hybrids or who knows I don't know how that works but this big is also greenish has a little color on the outside but when you break it open it's blood red inside so red I should say like a strawberry and my husband I ate him and it was like you're eating a mouthful of strawberries I've never had anything like that before so what we're going to do on this particular fig tree is we're going to try to you know trim some limbs off and arutam because this is an amazing fig tree okay now this massive tree which I'm under I have no idea how the cameras filming this because it's so bright and sunny today I get a sized trunk on that thing I mean it's it's massive again these are all the same age they all came out of my compost last year I didn't trim this right I was trimming these trees and this one's going that way there's the figs on there this is a failure as far as fix this tree from seed looks nice it tastes bad I mean the fig no matter how hard I water it and try to like a fig off of this tree and it's full of figs they taste really bad you break them open they look really good you look like they're gonna be juicy and good you break them open and they're dry they're kind of a light tan inside no matter how long we leave it right I remember there was a field out here a fig trees there was an empty lot and I used to park when I first moved down here and run out there and pick them by the bags and bring them home and they tasted like this really bad so I guess we're gonna end up taking it out and then there's one more I can reach around this way and here's this one this one is just producing figs on the top I have no idea what this one tastes like so I'm hoping we get one more that's good but if not it will probably go but this is just like I said this is another one these are all yearlings and they have good-sized trunks this was the smallest out of all of them now this is what I wanted to show you real quick see these tubs last year my husband built me these wooden tubs I don't know which raised beds I should say get some old scrap wood and he built this one and then he built this one that's there and I wasn't you know I didn't know what I was gonna put something in it so he had so much llama and donkey manure he brought home he had no place to put it he said he used enough we didn't need it I said you know what just fill up these two bins and just leave them nothing but manure just leave them and I'll water it and it will start to break down and then I'll throw a squash in there which I did throw squash in there and it did grow it's too shaded now because of the fig trees so they're not growing that good well we think because of these bins full of the manure breaking down and there's no bottom on these bins completely open it fed these fig trees and that's why the two fig trees closest to these raised beds that were full of llama and donkey manure I guess there would've been horse in there – she's got horses – it fed these trees to the point where it made these massive trunks and this is why they got so big that they're growing all these figs the ones in my husband's garden there's no fix not one fig on those trees same age not one big so it is a heavy feeding of the manure I guess that one had more manure in it too but it didn't have as much when he built me that one I mixed in I guess I was composting in place kitchen scraps there was a little bit of manure in there so that trays not as big but it got more than the one down below in his garden so it ended up with FIGS but didn't get as big these tree trunks are really big again this one had manure in it it said that tree and that had manure in it and of course it fed the other one because I had just told him just fill him up he had he brought home I think two truckloads of it she wanted her yard clean he said sure so I just told just fill it up it'll break down then I'll mix something in it and so these wooden boxes he built me raised beds were full of manure and this is what caused these trees to get so big I mean they just took off they'd sit dormant they sat dormant you know didn't grow real quick in the beginning for like a few months and then all of a sudden they just took off I mean I've been trimming him and trimming him he didn't trim his even he told me he hasn't touched his I've been cutting him off I just didn't cut this branch off so it kind of came down and it covered up the area so it's shaded the area my bagels didn't go here that's when the trash can but that is the reason these trees grew this big in one year was because of the manure so it was getting I guess you could say fed every single day it was the manure was leaching into the ground in the ground around these four fig trees was just full of nutrients and they are heavy feeders they're a ficus and they just took off and start growing but growing from seed is not the best and that's what I was explaining to somebody on one of my youtube videos is that when you grow from seed any of these fruit trees you have no idea what you can end up with you can end up with something fantastic I'm better than ever and I think this is the tree up here I we've got more figs up there they're not ripe yet but this is the tree that we really want to concentrate on because the figs that have been ripening in the one we're eating it's it's you'd almost close your eyes and think you're eating strawberries yeah we we don't understand that but this one tastes like strawberries so we'll see but that's what I wanted to show the ones in his garden down below in his garden is and he did not put the fertilizer like here from the almond or his just grew at a normal pace but mine because of these bins they took off they got massive these massive tree trunks so that's why they grew figs in a year and yes they are only a year old these were baby fig treats they look like weeds coming out of my compost because I do cold composting only so I get all kinds of things growing you know like Oh like David the good who's growing pumpkins well we grew pumpkins and we grew zucchini and they hybridized and when I stayed the seeds or you know I have say seeds but when they grow out of my compost I get the most interesting looking zucchini pumpkin looking things they taste good anyways that's it this is on pigs and I'm going back in and don't forget to eat what you grow bye bye all

As found on YouTube

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TN Wild Side-1 Million Trees.mpg

in the shadow of mature shade trees sheltered from the bright noonday Sun volunteers prepared to plant over a dozen saplings we want to make sure that this tree has every possibility of surviving the trees they plant today could possibly be providing protection a hundred years from now that's the root flare we want to make sure that that root flare is above the ground or just barely got a little soil on it the corporate professionals here on a little leave from their desk jobs stop and listen to the basic instructions that will increase the odds of long-term tree planting success give me another shovel together these make a highly scientific measuring tool we now know how deep the hole is right so we can grab it there and come back over here look like that holds too deep in it so we're gonna have to actually put some dirt back in that hole the trees will take root along McCutchin Creek in Spring Hill those that do survive will branch out and serve several important purposes trees are one of the best ways to clean up stormwater the roots of those trees absorb water they absorb pollutants all of our sidewalks and rooftops and things like that they have water that just you know it's no longer absorbs into the ground anymore once you pave over those surfaces they also help with erosion and sedimentation the roots are the best ways to stabilize the soil and of course we know that sedimentation is probably one of the biggest pollutants in our streams here in the city as well as around the nation if these volunteers were punching a time clock the paycheck would only last a little while but the trees they're planting are likely to last beyond their lifetime it's a personal investment with a pay it forward philosophy I think as we have passion to do it I mean we're volunteering so we want to do it it's not a force obligation you have to get up every day to do it because it's your job quote unquote you're doing because you enjoy it in 1-2 let's get one crew vulcan trees benefit people trees benefit places the environment and trees benefit the economy and you know there's just nobody out there that can't appreciate one or more of those benefits that's really the genesis of the tennessee tree project the tennessee tree project is an effort on the part of the state environmental council corporate sponsors and local volunteers with a goal of planting 1 million trees by the year 2020 the program started with a desire to enhance the tree line along the Duck River and it have expanded all across the state in parks neighborhoods yards will plant trees pretty much anywhere folks will work with us to plant trees when executives at the Franklin headquarters of Mars pet food found out about the project they came looking for ways to work company volunteers have planted almost 200 trees in less than a month I grew up in Lexington Kentucky and always was around a lot of property as soon as I was allowed to cut grass or do any work around the house I was out there doing it and I now live in downtown Nashville so I don't get to really enjoy all the landscaping anymore so it's great to get out and volunteer and enjoy a park on a pretty day planting is just part of it there are some trees planted previously that now need a little trimming a little pruning a little TLC we're gonna check to make sure all the trees have a collar on them we put these on here to protect them from the weed eaters they taught us how to be sure to look for dead leaves and and dead branches and then cut the dead branches off and leave the others going and just checking the basic with a healthy tree that's a cute one we've got the million tree goal but we also want to engage a half-a-million Tennesseans in the process and we want to do that because we want to educate people help people to be aware about the value of one individual tree but also about the value of the urban forest and the rural force to our community as socially conscious corporate executives demonstrated here there is also great value in being a volunteer in Tennessee I'm Annette Knoll Hall on Tennessee's wild side you

As found on YouTube

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Minecraft: How To Grow Big Trees (100%) Tutorial

hello everyone and welcome back to another minecraft tutorial in this video I'm going to be showing you how to grow large oak trees with a sapling every single time you try this method now I found this when I was doing some research for the next episode of do you know minecraft and I decided to share this one because the previous method involved using cobblestone and torches and I found that to be a little bit unreliable now as the game gets updated things changing the code and some of the old techniques don't work anymore but this one works perfectly every single time so what you've got to do is place down a sapling then diagonal to it put two blocks like so and it's this block here that needs to either be glass or a slab like this and then remove the block down below and then you can grow the tree now this will work if you leave it to grow both naturally which will take a long time and if you use bonemeal which can also take up to a stack or more and you can see on our first drive we've got a big large tree right here now this technique works as I said every single time so it's really important to understand that this method isn't always going to create big trees like this one right here what it will do though is always create the large tree type now this type of tree will try and grow extra high it will try to spawn extra branches and amounts of leaves as well but it doesn't always succeed in doing that and sometimes you'll get a smaller tree like this one over here you can see it sort of got an extra group of leaves over on this side but no extra branches now this one over here is the smallest possible type of large tree that you can get and it looks as about the same size as a regular tree so it's one thing to keep in mind this is a large tree right here it's just the smallest possible variant of it that the game can actually create so you're always going to get a large tree type that doesn't necessarily mean a large tree however you can see from the few that we've done here these ones aren't too common so I wanted to find out the average amount of bonemeal this technique would use so I set up this testing environment all of these trees have been hand grow basically I came over here with some saplings I'd go into survival mode use up some bone meal and then tally up how much I used each time now on average it's 20 bone meal per tree however sometimes you could get away with just using one or two pieces of bone meal and sometimes it would use over a stack so it can be quite stubborn but on average it uses 20 bonemeal per tree so here's an unused copy of the testing environment and by the way when I did the bonemeal test there weren't all of these saplings here I did them one by one what I wanted to show you in this world though was that these trees can grow naturally with this method as well so let's set the text speed to 1000 and straightaway you can see that these trees start popping up and the large ones are absolutely everywhere and that's causing my game to lag so we're going to slow it down to 100 and have a little fly around so you can see here most of the times and the trees are very big occasionally we get the smallest variant of the large tree and one last thing that I wanted to mention is that I did mess around with adding extra blocks like at this height and then this light to see if we could force it to grow higher but my testing was really inconclusive it kind of felt sometimes like it was but then again sometimes you would see some of these smaller trees where the leaf box here had simply been replaced by the glass that was already there so I'd say that's inconclusive but this technique for now should do you just fine and that's it for me this video as always if you've enjoyed it leave a like down below and check out the tutorials play this for more useful things that you can do in your survival world but anyway that's it for me so thank you for watching and I'll catch you next time buh-bye

As found on YouTube

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2.10.1 Trees: Video

trees are about the most basic data structure that you're ever going to come across there they pervade computer science and other subjects so let's talk about them and the simplest definition of a tree is that a tree is a connected graph with no cycles in this setting we're talking about simple graphs and trees with undirected edges well in order to make sense out of that we'd better have a definition of a cycle there's a picture of a typical tree but to be precise what's a cycle in a simple graph well it's a closed walk of length greater than 2 that doesn't cross itself so the not crossing itself is the standard definition of a cycle that we were using in a directed graph it simply means that it's a path except that the beginning and end vertex are the same so it looks like you start someplace at V and then you go around to a and to W and it's all distinct vertices as you go around in this path except that the path ends where it starts at V which is what keeps it from being a path it makes it a cycle now the length greater than 2 is what is the difference between the definition of cycle between simple graphs and directed graphs in a directed graph it's perfectly possible to have a self-loop of length 1 that is an interesting and important kind of cycle to have but we forbid them in simple graphs because there's no way to avoid having a cycle of length 2 because you always have the ability to go back and forth and cross an edge that's not interesting and so we don't consider that to be a cycle a cycle then has to be of length greater than 2 it also rules out the cycle of length 0 which you get by taking a vertex or by itself ok with that technical definition we now know what a cycle is in this simple graph and we understand the definition of tree here are some more pictures of trees simple graphs with no cycles now they really come up all the time and why is that well there are family trees which you may be familiar with where you're during a picture of the descendants of a given person and they keep branching out in a you know tree structure as traditionally displayed there are search tree which come up the whole time in computer science where you branch on the answer to some question which tells you which way to search next there are game trees which we've already discussed in this class which are used to define great games and strategies their parse trees that come up in in compiler technology and in language theory and in the responding trees which we're going to be talking about some today now there in addition to these places where trees come up there are a lot of different kinds of trees there's rooted trees where there's some designated vertex called the root and you think of getting to all the other vertices from the road there are ordered trees where when you're at a given vertex there's a distinct order in which you are going to be in which the exit edges from a vertex are there's a first one in the second one the third one or a left one in the next leftmost and so on so that there's an order in which you can choose to leave the vertex there are binary trees in which each vertex has sort of two ways out exactly or no ways out if it's a so-called leaf and then there are complete trees whose definition olive is not important to us because we're not going to consider any of these there's also by the way directed trees in which edges are have a direction as in a digraph tree but we're not considering any of these we're going to focus on so-called pure trees which are unordered unrooted undirected and that's what we're talking about so let's examine some more properties of trees and equivalent definitions of trees it will be important for theoretical reasons and convenience to know lots of different characterizations of trees so we've starting off in the definition which says it's a connected simple graph with no cycles but there's other ways to characterize it so an edge in a simple graph is called a cut edge if when you remove it from the graph two vertices that used to be connected that is used to have a path between them cease to have a path between them so here's a we'll graph illustration and that edge e is a cut edge because if I delete it then there are now two components there used to be two vertices actually any of the vertices here used to be connected to any of the vertices there via that edge but once I've deleted that edge all of those vertices here and there that used to be connected no longer are so that makes via cut edge Oh F is not a cut edge because even if I delete edge F there is in fact still a path from every vertex to every other vertex here so that F is not disconnecting anything um and as I say it's still connected after you delete it so now we get a simple way to characterize trees in terms of cut edges because an edge is not a cut edge if and only if it's on a cycle if you think about that if it's on a cycle and you cut an edge out of a cycle then everything on the cycle still connected by going the other way around the cycle that doesn't use that edge and if it's not on a cycle then in fact you can think through that deleting it means that there's not going to be two paths between two things that it's at its endpoints and so it will separate them okay so another way then to define a tree is to say a tree is a connected graph where every edge is a cut edge then as soon as you cut any edge out of a tree it stops being connected that yields another way to say that something is a tree a tree is a simple graph that is connected and is edged minimal which again means that if you remove any edge it stops having that property of being connected so it's an edge minimal connected graph that's kind of the reason why trees are so important because if you're trying to figure out a way to get a whole bunch of things a whole bunch of vertices connected a tree is gonna have the minimum number of edges that are sufficient to get them all connected if you think about different nodes in a network that need to communicate with each other and you want to know how many direct connections do there have to be between these communication centers in order for everybody to talk to everybody else the answer is it's got to be a tree on n vertices and a tree on n vertices is going to have exactly n minus 1 edges so that gives you I still another equivalent definition of a tree a tree is a connected graph that has n vertices and n minus 1 edges a kind of dual way to think about it is that a tree is an acyclic graph that has as many edges as it possibly could without having any cycles so typically an acyclic graph might not be connected but as long as it's not connected you can keep adding edges that will connect things up without creating cycles but the minute you get a tree so that everything is connected you can't add another edge so an edge 'men an edge maximal acyclic graph is still another way to characterize trees and maybe the most useful way is to say that a graph in which there is a unique path between any two vertices is a tree so of course if there's a unique path in particular isn't passed so all the vertices have to be connected but what makes it a tree is that there aren't two different ways to connect between two vertices because as soon as the word that would be a cycle and those are some of the basic ways that trees can be formulated equivalently and in fact there's lots more but this is enough for today

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Men in Trees Staffel 2 Folge 7 deutsch german adlı videonun kopyası

you want to get a divorce where are you all my life where has no idea been this morning ball away shane byrne do you love marry me i want i have offered a job got i know we both need time and space left nine months will be there sufficient please don't forget please how are you because we haven't had time to talk yet well it was a bit crazy first this wolf and then the one lightning bolt our friend has lost his memory Patrick is coming from the Kobiashvili hospital today and andy are getting him together I will leave you alone for now because whenever i tell him i would be his doing if we on the shoulder and says good joke how did it go, yes we kissed goodbye she let the plane turn around because he wanted to kiss me again he has to you can kiss damn good says the right one you are a man and he leaves the church what is now i get his item ski his flowers his house key has not yet been given for the next nine months anyone now you can sniff around you know it something like that is out of the question for me if you have doubts you should do it i have not the plane for retirement i have seen guys who are reversed because you forgot your ham sandwich Thank you for understanding banks it is true a dog also only becomes too sniff when you tell him he is on a ship exploring whales I don't think there are so many women you can sniff anyway i know jack well enough by now we're together with everything that goes with science, exactly one woman reese what do you see I get mail and will water his flowers is not just anyone's job so honestly you will always be my neighbors to do that i can take you with you well how is it out there looks like the group still belongs together can i see god clearly you should have seen earlier they jumped and played to show off the idlers because one a few fans have to work properly i try to take it easy yes and me Thought you are lying in the sun again let's see you for a rescue you should wear something you just turned ten that summer you opened the den it was the fourth of july for the first time I gave you something about the confiscated fireworks you that after nine excuse me then the halls heard mine me but you will him we need more tips i wasn't expecting so much i can't believe that they are really all friends of patrick hey they know him better than yourself hello ladies i was hoping i would could help you somehow, of course, that you could enter that here hey you are not so innocent i saw exactly where you eyes your eyes has is i have to offer a lot did you really weren't interested in me not history a bit almost related i don't know you know what not how you arrive why believe me you can do it It actually turned out to be a real one, it's just that I haven't been with it for over ten years a fire together not even with my own you only need one a little freshening up don't say anything more you get a special offer 6 ticks eni everything is fine what are you doing out here I do not know not to endure this condition for so full 26 years of his life pass him and he remembers nothing at all and me am about six months of which only a blink of an eye just had to give him time just got out of the hospital you said it would take a while come on, come in with me, i am raving about patrick forster go back to the office there is a bunch waiting but it is already clear that it is nine o'clock but first concentrate on yourself and patrick I can to help you in the office tomorrow really really chic said I had to I take care of a few things for him then I can take care of you too as now jack has moved away from greedy mia san mia only when he has missed you im reason and because of his plants he only had a short time from the ship talking on the phone is pretty difficult or you know maybe too icy anyway he got in touch with her although the year before he can't even contact me remember and I'm even here just don't remember you right now do not forget to think positively my love exactly you there we are two layers that's me your mama, I have us already recognized nicely that you are back thanks is unfortunately his first day here again later that's you with hello because you're not cool at your radio station then the fans all over the world or well mainly here in erfurt it's just a small transmitter that looks good there you are at the bar with electricity I was also somewhere else than in shift or on the radio station none you already know friends from college well i think people my age you travel and do crazy things you liked to live and work here it wasn't a problem because it never was you I have already left alaska but once with me annie in new york that knows no i don't know anything anymore you can hear this diaz it's just a waste of time for all of us it works not and I know why I don't have a life that I like remember, can you only say that she's here on this is my life all day you talked to me because you want to that I remember but maybe it's better if not apparently i'm just boring no patrick patrick Yes Someone from jane is seen where they speak urgently since the hospital no longer why there is so maybe i can ask you my question let's say you've found something that you shouldn't find You're weak that slipped around but I wasn't snooping around like that I do something after what every woman likes to sniff like all men lie finally told me ok then I ask what is her purely by chance Something finds if it falls into your lap in the truest sense of the word but before you helped a little and shaking it vigorously is very easy for me So fell in the lap and I shouldn't know anything about it and I wanted to also do not even know what would you do the appropriate authorities what haste found someone of you knows a donna is a doner kebab in the lap please jerome you can't get a dollar off homer thunder camos ketchikan fleckchen is what makes ericsson think about it it doesn’t ring my bell but remember you remember donna think oh yes she came with a cross i had this woman had patrick I have no idea that is beautiful finally the face to the voice on the phone yes finally you are completely different from what I thought I thought you were older with, thanks, I'll do that again, you're café also a junior that would be great oh I hope you have made your favorite dish right there it is forgot i am so sorry they are waiting for me in the ice rink i have that promised in jerome you can watch the training I thought we'd both decided to have lunch together, yes you know what pulling your thing through i have enough to do here i don't want to be absent from the first training session i should be there that's not the point says go it's still because of patrick and some things against patrick and english wedding the bar was closed and closed for a pond you have already explained all this long and broad I went to the office to get our license back of course i thought we had agreed our relationship would have top priority already forgotten you wanted me back here I'm ready to change things and you hey i'm too late which is unimportant you know you don't have to watch the show here I can do it on my own until Patrick comes back, but I can do it not and i need as much support as possible you can tell the saying that absence makes longing flourish but what if this absence also makes love disappear I understand that well, I'm meanwhile all things from Patrick went through it so he remembers me again remembered but maybe i wasn't his girlfriend long enough to be important It doesn't matter how long you are know someone and be important to him is not true I think we're on the air Excuse me, please, I'm just asking our guest presenter any you know all of you any patrick hello my friend annie and i have just met entertain how much time it takes to be important in someone else's life A chance meeting is enough for six months a decade has Shakespeare said he write for the immortality writers hope the written word keeps the memory of you alive but books can be lost wanted to be erased stories change when all these variables work against you how do you experience which impression you are have done Isn't there too much going on on may modesty is something for idiots real women attack well I also look dangerous but Here these groups serve with and do the whole thing again at home then give you mostly move but don't tell your friends i have that patent don't you make any notes yes i do you love i'm sorry and really not to bring the bears any more honey that wanted to have this little love nest these are my favorites really and that was an interesting raw food location is from the best my name is hot and chocolate makes her feel like you've had sex in case the beef should not work but what does that want to mess everything up little beginner don't worry you talk with one eye i'm one little beginner in the art of seduction after all, i played the street car industry, which is a huge one seductive yes only one does not play this eroticism with you here omeyer I know that you do everything more directly and can i help you i would say i will help you over i will help with maria riesch thinks i can do it alone I'm married to the hottest needs in town or maybe not so good if mary starts talking and women always do that they only believe in you constantly in eye contact something if I blink briefly afterwards and then quickly if you answer eats there so she comes closer I can't understand that whisper then when her face is very close to yours like now then you have her in under his spell she is ready for wax in her hands final you see you are defenseless let me be satisfied we finish hello here is jack leave a message darling have you left Without calling me I can only hope that you will be there lying outside completely forgets i miss you dollar has not been unsympathetic to the ordinary as if it were sheep pink toenails i worry because she calls in darling yes i was I hadn't thought that something ordinary would forget what I would I just said no hasty conclusions can make me the evil six also like to take the past in front of his door pregnant that is true sweetheart we try in the forest if you want to talk you should have called can you don't have to take me into the wilderness sorry i did called you but you were never there you were lost and annie took care of the patrick cunning help here now also at work is then maybe we just need to find these prints oh what pursuit talked here try deer deer deer I don't know who qualified to find their deer as newborn new yorkers in imported leather says you come from the label wow you need a dollar or no i am much too disappointed with My favorite is then one with lots of chocolate chips I really thought these images trigger something in him you know we shouldn't be anymore judging by clichés they say lightning doesn't hit you twice but we are smart with some aluminum foil or cable we could honestly have So this is something that I would never forget that's it i know how we can help patrick good morning mr never good morning supervisor dick i'm completely exhausted because of patrick that's me too i just wanted to know if you tried everything to awaken his memories of course he cooked his favorite meal and I like the music he plays even had it built at your school in case it all sounds pretty good but i'm not sure if that was really possible I hope you understand what I mean now what is wrong she wants to say yes is that there are different ways of memory to stimulate again we don't think in the usual way clichés you understand oh yes so what i want to say is when patrick shining inside tonight just shows him what he likes best in the bedroom no patrick are just getting back to me to get to know and who doesn't want to be the kind of young who just go along with them a stranger have sex so please take your o'donnell goes Think about it may I see too the red glow from last year to deviate over a mile yes no coincidence because I get warmer every year, how long have you two been doing this? if i'm not mistaken it's now four months swear by god gary i spend more time with you than with my husband it must be difficult yes one real challenge stop complaining my significant other is a dog me I've heard you talked to a Meryn on the phone, is that your wife or girlfriend i love to know marien is a woman just that I stink when I talk to you guys on 7 worse than scene meets often or I wait for it with her meet if I had to go they had just got closer bad timing it takes a long time to prove that the deer are here in my life Apparently it's just a matter of proving that something exists hirer a relationship box with jack you and jackie since real I can say that you don't look like this uncertainty at all, maybe I would feel better feel and have solid ground under your feet and I could say who is almost schilksee the desert but the man is there on the high seas I badly confront him with it all right so I tell you what surely your worries too because then you're already on the same side of the continent and how can you be sure of your relationship because it is something serious right me I keep forgetting that your plane in the relationship it just has a small one change given we both got married from the front who his witnesses we shouldn't make a big deal out of the mess with patrick and ernie very much considerate so we are simply to the registry office gone they didn't have time to get rings anymore I'm also just a little jealous of squinting to go crazy if you really want to know it's thunder had to see jack ask probably very unimportant and you will be calmed down again and where do you have yours gift list and williams-sonoma we ask everyone to honor a sapling plant and what should your house stand on in the future is not okay If you don't want to come in, everything is okay, I mean you did before normal things were still worn these things were my normal comfortable clothes but now I feel anything but normal just sorry to hear that so i didn't mean really forget it No don't you want to sit down too, please it's nice to see you again i said you have problems with your eyes do you have problems with your voice what why are you talking so quietly and why Do you look at me as if you were about to mold yourself into one of those and you know how to make a woman feel special you manage to scare and frighten me I think we do tolerated another time that was great to be the best the chances are slim that something like this will happen again hello hello how are you marien do you understand me ok i have to tell you what i like to say i like a smell so much and i miss you I should have said that first, I miss you, yes I have one shirt we have – just out here but me love it i love it also found a business card in it what you got me sent a card marent and that's our room, well that's it, we haven't been together that long I was used to being a good roommate the best Did you do that, no, these are only memories that have to do with you, I thought they would help her but just later no, it helps to see that I was interested in something otherwise there is just this terrible empty fund you will live with the energy of a tiger in bed like nothing here is the book you read before the accident that you liked very much I have marked the place but I know you have I can go back from starts at the beginning that's a fact No dollar london half of the night was amazing I also fell with you but it was really me I have the feeling I have to apologize to you because I have you with the have cheated i have to go now i still have to work you are your own boss right there you need all your discipline otherwise you won't get anywhere but i will call you we should we see me call us living with us we should be on our honeymoon now and by the way there are no telephones at all in the rooms this is yours seriously, however, we have to do something, see you kloeppel said i love you was maybe the talk of his shirt yes something can easily be confused i still don't know who donna is she is on the positive side you can probably look at his radio does not do either the house will now show that ok I am constantly looking at problems with his car, which is great, fantastic, you have you always wished yes but it's too much because you don't have to do it I wanted to do nothing about it lately it has been pretty bad me I think so I just wanted to show you that I'm very sorry if i don't hope that you will me now every time we argue big present makes okay no that would be too expensive how about the little test drive okay i'm the 70 dollar what i want to say took a minute tips ilia ok class busy as you can see me just wanted to thank you when you hooked me up you speak at all yesterday i tried to seduce his son in the bedroom as you seduce me said anna loos get in and it was great ok my son is a fantastic lover and what's a problem this man is not patrick i want to pee mary when i would like to apologize to you because i spoiled our evening yesterday I was an idiot but don't hold it against me you you weren't you either, right i was badly advised how i i played another man's game my real me is like I've discovered a bit old fashioned I get up old-fashioned and you might find yourself in a long-distance relationship don't know how do you put this before where should i come from Know that you'll remember me when we never I will never forget you and especially not when we write to each other writing writing that sounds very romantic mail department alaska radio report for research ship 69 echo was the thing can sometimes be quite annoying when you try to reach men got separated earlier i know what it is it's so frustrating i am in the middle of a sentence with jim and then there is only noise he really is always patient i'm sure she understands is just that your thoughts mostly in the fast lane i'll write you an apology your absence and the bad received when the world withdrew from it is trying to escape really not bad or I didn't even know that it was official we players have already started a hockey school for some of the children here Did you already have his fans engaged? It was voluntary offered to test the hot dogs taste very big titles we want everything to stay in our hands procure it's not the most romantic gesture in the world but it's pretty awesome I want you to leave a part of it too do you know now where my name is on things i have to put my image on it respect, think highly of China i am i found your card and i would not like to introduce it I am a relationship advisor the best to speak openly about everything i know i read your book what you don't say so thank you i guess what I actually say the list I don't have any checks and obviously know you jack too and believe me i should be asking this question for the moment in the middle of the behring, more on a research trip and the reception is on pretty bad anyway what i want to say is in What relationship do you have with him because you are my direct kind of thunder there is probably no really good way of asking questions like that, that's just me laughing cause i'm not sure what you think but i'm jacks mother his mother but her name i got married again correctly of course okay start again it's very nice she knows yes i am they also know too much about them, he tells jagger stop hey i feel the dishes that are not right Did I do something wrong, no it's just because we always have done together you did the dishes and I did dried off we probably already had a real routine we had i wish i had it not passed I can't do that anymore ok then let it go make me do that I can't keep telling you what we've done and I can tell you also don't say what we didn't do and I can't not kiss Without thinking about how it used to be why I can't pretend I would do not mind i think it's best for both of us if i get my own room again pull I'm really sorry they also from his mother why didn't i even figure it out because jack apparently not a guy you are a mother has such an idiot At least she stays with you, I've never spoken to his mother on the phone I wish I could talk to jack crazy.

This whole thing was going through and he has no idea that our search for the traces already behind us lies the rain will wash them all in front you're right life could be so beautiful if we could capture certain moments the times when we are happy we knew we were loved game but we can't do it instead try again to trace the footprints that maybe already have long since faded fight each time for the memories of such moments for the time you injured and we try to make new acquaintances whom we hope will be outlast time hans failed in communication, little remains behind I can't wait to see you and how nifty You know that gave us that we were important and that someone loved us In the end, the memory may make it all you have.

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